As can be observed in Figure 3, in the temperature and baryon chemical potential graph, the quark gluon plasma is located in regions where the temperature and chemical baryon potential are high. These regions are close to the critical point, that is, the phase in the first formation process of the universe. As a result, both the temperature and the chemical baryon potential of the particles must reach the highest point for the formation of quark gluon plasma. When it reaches this point, arids become exotic (dibaryon or tetraquark) and QGP occurs.
5. The First Discovery of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
"If you're interested in the properties of the microsecond old universe, the best way to study it is not to build a telescope, but to build an accelerator," says Krishna Rajagopal, an MIT theoretical physicist working on QGP. (Trafton, 2010)
Because of the enormous energies required for the discovery of quark-gluon plasma, the lab would need to be a particle accelerator with the plasma produced as a result of collisions between particles accelerating towards each other in counter-rotating beams, rather than the particles hitting a stationary target. In the case of a stationary target, not all incoming particle energy is available for the reaction, as most of it must go into the kinetic energy of the products to conserve momentum. Even in colliding nuclei, most of the energy is surrounded by large chunks of nuclei and therefore cannot be used to produce plasma. Their nuclei are chosen for their large atomic weight to make the collision energy as large as possible.
First, a team at the Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva conducted a preliminary experiment with a lead core beam and stationary targets of various materials, but the results, while encouraging, were inconclusive.
The Relative Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was built specifically to produce quark-gluon plasma. In the 2.4-mile-long RHIC ring, fully ionized gold ions move in both directions simultaneously and can meet in six places around the ring for collisions.
Earlier RHIC results suggested that when gold nuclei collided head-on, their kinetic energies split many nucleons and formed a hot, dense plasma of quarks and gluons that should immediately begin to expand and cool. The hot plasma lasts only 10-23 seconds, and only when the plasma has cooled enough that the quarks and gluons freeze, leaving behind thousands of sprays of elementary particles that bear the signature of hot, dense plasma. (Image 4) (Quark-Gluon Plasma, no date)