Pyrocystis Lunula: the future of bioluminescence? 

By Maria Rutkowska

Have you ever heard of bioluminesnce? It is the emission of light by living organisms. It has been a topic of discussion since the times of Aristotle, Shakespeare and Darwin. Bioluminesnce is a characteriss of a wide range of organisms, from fish to jellyfish to fungi. 


Confirmation Bias

By Vedant Kumar

Peter Wason, an English psychologist, coined the term "confirmation bias" which he defined as the propensity for people to prefer information that supports or confirms their ideas or values while entirely omitting and/or rejecting information that contradicts those beliefs. Other labels for it include "cherry-picking" and just insisting on going to the lengths necessary to win a debate.


The Potentially Immortal Turritopsis Dohrnii: the secret to living forever

By Julia Wojas

Humans have for ages been fascinated by the idea of prolonging one’s life and the concept of eternal existence and immortality. It might just be that the answer to those fantasies can be found right in our oceans, where a tiny, inconspicuous creature lives, that might help us to understand what it takes to live forever.


Tardigrades- Animals Full of Surprises

By Maya Komar-Fletcher

Thought to have the ability to survive global mass extinction, tardigrades are one of the most indestructable creatures on the planet. Extreme radiation exposure, unsurvivable temperature or starvation is nothing but a breeze for a tardigrade. Can we implement these fascinating survival skills into humans? Can these creatures survive exposure to outer space itself?…


ADHD in Children

By Melten Safarli

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children. Boys are more likely to have it than girls. It’s usually spotted during elementary school time when a child begins to have problems paying attention. 


Mood Swings

By Melten Safarli

Why do we experience intense fluctuations of emotion and rapid change in our emotional state? Does our diet, stress, weather, use of substance, issues in sleep schedule, trauma or other factors affect why we feel this way? Learn about what mood swings are and the reason behind them in this insight into the inner workings of our psyche.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

By Melten Safarli

From time to time, we see something that affects us and we can’t forget it. Sadly, PTSD is far worse than that. If you see the symptoms in yourself or in the people that you know, it’s very important to seek professional help or simply gain more knowledge about PTSD. Now, let’s start with the question “What’s PTSD?”


The Use of Functional MRI for Detecting Lies: Exploring the Limitations of Neurolaw Studies

By Adam Ho

Behind every word men utter, there is a complex series of processing and integrating information in the brain. For more than a decade, scientists have been exploring the method of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans to detect lies. Despite the growing influence of neuroscience in the legal sphere and its potential for juror-decision making, the use of fMRI scans as a testament for or against the defendant exposes the private, internal state of individuals. This article discusses the values and limitations of the use of fMRI scans to detect lies, a piece of potent evidence that could turn the course of a jury trial. The neural mechanism of how fMRI detects lies will be first explored, which is in tandem compared to the traditional lie detector, polygraph, demonstrating the prospects of using fMRI in forensic cases. The limitations of fMRI will be then discussed with reference to the validity of the experiments raised, the psychology of criminals, and the structure of the society.


Dangers of Stroke During Cardiovascular Open Heart Surgery and Preventive Precautions 

By Jamie Lin

Open Heart Surgery is a high risk procedure that involves cutting open the cardio to fix the issues within it.  Complications of the surgery can result in permanent disabilities if not proceeded carefully. One of the most dangerous complications after cardiac surgery is the possibility of stroke. This is a symptom that can cause brain death and paralyzation of the body for the remainder of the individuals lifetime. However, this devastating complication can be prevented if careful precautions are taken. To prevent stroke from occurring during cardiovascular open heart surgery, cardiologists can tighten control of blood pressure and monitor blood flow to the brain during surgery.


The scope of neuroplasticity on neuropsychiatric disorders

By Shreya Shiju

Contrary to what was once popular belief, our daily experiences largely impact our neural network and brain structure, even through adulthood. Although our genes are responsible for a “first draft” of the brain, this is frequently revised and edited throughout our lives by the experiences we have. This brings us to the topic of neuroplasticity


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Tunas- food medicine

By Perla Marysol Peña Reséndiz

The research bellow won an Honorable Mention in the category of Theoretical Studies during the 2nd International Research Competition for Young Scientists (IRCYS)

An investigation into the numerous properties and applications of Opuntia ficus-indica, also known as tuna, in terms of food medicine, emphasising its mode of production, which requires little amounts of water and almost no use of chemical fertilisers.



The brain plague

By Victoria Stanisławska

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease right after Alzheimer’s. Symptoms can be motor, for example, tremors and muscle rigidity, or non-motor, such as loss of smell or issues of the digestive tract. In most cases, non-motor symptoms are present even decades before onset motor symptoms.



Different methods of vaccination throughout the years

By Laasya Ravi- Found Three

There is a new strain of Covid called the Omicron variant. Experts are not sure whether this mutation is more or less severe than the Delta strain. This led me to wonder what different methods people in the past used for their vaccines and to gain immunity. Vaccines have greatly evolved over time, eradicating many viral infections. For example, smallpox was a disease that killed 300,000,000 people by attacking their respiratory tract. Now, we don’t have to worry about this viral infection, thanks to vaccines. Today, let’s go through the different forms of immunity.



Do genetics play a role in increasing your chances od developing depression?

By Diya Sandeep

According to the World Health Organization, about 350 million people around the world are affected by depression. It plays a pivotal role in how people think, feel and act and can impact physical health and other aspects of life. But do genetics have a correlation with depression?



Lung cancer

By Kenely Herrington

Lung Cancer is the third most prominent type of cancer in the United States and causes more death than any other type of cancer (Lung cancer statistics 2021). Smoking is a widely known issue for adults and is the main cause of lung cancer. An estimate of 80% of lung cancer deaths are due to smoking cigarettes (Lung cancer causes: Lung cancer in Non-Smokers).



All About Allergies

By Elizabeth M. 

Recently, I had an allergic reaction and the experience made me want to learn more about allergies and answer all the questions I asked myself. Why do some of us have allergies and others don’t? What is the science behind them? And what are allergy tests?



How does the lack of sleep affect your digestive system?

By Quynh And Nguyen

With the increasing workload at school and at work, people nowadays tend to stay up very late at night or even pull an all-nighter to finish up their tasks. Effects of the lack of sleep, such as decreasing the capacity to learn and retain information, and reducing productivity or accuracy in working are commonly known (Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School, n.d.). However, although they range from mild to severe levels, the consequences that insufficient sleep results on our digestive system are much less widely acknowledged. So, how does the lack of sleep affect our digestive health?



Marine ecotourism- our saviour

By Ashley Huang 

Marine ecotourism is a thriving industry offering avariety of activities. Swimming with dolphins and whales, snorkeling with fish, and even viewing the beauty of the ocean from a mermaid’s perspective, are possible. Moreover, marine ecotourism can boost struggling economies and play a key role in increasing awareness about the importance of marine species for local livelihoods. Marine ecotourism facilitates the study of these vital environments by modern science, leading more effective protection against those threats. The economic benefits of marine ecotourism for local communities, the raising of knowledge about eco-friendliness, and the resultant reduction of dangers posed to marine species are really obvious. It goes without saying that governments should support this unique type of tourism in order to ensure that it continues to provide both economic and ecological benefits.



The most lethal toxin

By Victoria Stanisławska

Have you ever heard of botox or seen a puffer fish? What do they have in common?



Induced Stem Cells- the how's and what's

By Nicola Stanisławska

Since the discovery of stem cells and their unique ability to develop into any type of cell necessary for any type of human function, many have dreamed of ways to use this ability in novel ways. From curing the uncurable like Parkinson disease or cancer, to developing non-invasive organ transplantation, this ability had to be harnessed. Yet, due to the heated debate between scientists on the ethical manner of extracting embryonic cells from an early-stage embryo, also known as blastocyst, this practice became controversial and restricted, and in some cases even illegal.


Are the causes of obesity more mental or physical?

By Nicola Stanisławska

Cosmetic concern or complex disease, the obesity epidemic has struck the modern world and is continuing to cause struggles for those who are victim to it. From its staggering triplication worldwide since 1975, many ask themselves if obesity is simply a result of an excessive intake in calories and lacking physical activity or whether it is more complicated and lies beneath its previously considered causes and is a result of one’s mental struggles and psychological disorders. The aim of this essay is to review the causes of the disease and reach a conclusion to what causes obesity.


Why does biological ageing occur?

By Maria Rutkowska

Why do we age? Biological ageing is when your cells start to decline with their abilities to provide the best for your body – your body becomes weaker. In my opinion there are 3 main factors that link to why biological ageing occurs. For instance, the UV light produced through sun rays, has an impact on our skin. It can be one of the reasons for premature, biological ageing. As well as, how many hours of sleep or physical exercise you get depend on your ageing process. All of these cause changes in your DNA, linking to biological ageing. In this essay, I will be discussing why biological ageing occurs and what are its factors behind it.